Falklands : LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY MEETING ON FRIDAY, 26 AUGUST 2011 (Part 1-a)
Submitted by Falkland Islands News Network (Juanita Brock) 28.08.2011 (Article Archived on 11.09.2011)
(Part 1-A: Information for Motion 5)
LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY MEETING ON FRIDAY, 26 AUGUST 2011
(Part 1-A: Information for Motion 5)
Commentary by J. Brock (FINN)
A meeting of Legislative Assembly took place at 0930hrs on Friday, 26 August 2011.
The following relates to MOTION NO: 5
The Falklands Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals in Transport
While the following ‘Falklands Code of Practice for the Welfare of Animals in Transport’ is targeted primarily at the commercial transportation of sheep and cattle to the abattoir, it covers any movements of the following species on any journey within the islands: Equine, ovine, bovine and porcine animals.
(Based on European Community legislation EU 1/2005 which came into effect on 7 Jan 2007, repealing the UK’s current Welfare of Animals in Transport Order (WATO) 1997)
2. General conditions for all animals in transport for which all movements must comply:
No person shall transport animals or cause animals to be transported in a way likely to cause injury or undue suffering;
All necessary arrangements should be made in advance to minimise the length of the journey and meet animals' needs during the journey;
The animals must be fit for the journey;
The means of transport must be designed, constructed, maintained and operated so as to avoid injury and suffering and ensure the safety of the animals;
The loading and unloading facilities must be adequately designed, constructed, maintained and operated so as to avoid injury and suffering and ensure the safety of the animals;
Loading and unloading should be performed efficiently and without undue delay;
The personnel handling animals must be competent and carry out their tasks without using violence or any method likely to cause unnecessary fear, injury or suffering;
The transport must be carried out without delay to the place of destination and the animals checked at regular intervals during transit;
Sufficient floor area and height must be provided for the animals, appropriate to their size and the intended journey duration.
2.10 Water, feed and rest must be offered to the animals at suitable intervals and be of appropriate quality and quantity to their species and size.
(Based on EU 1/2005 Article 3)
3. Specific requirements for the transport of sheep and cattle:
3.1 Fitness to travel:
Animals should be given the opportunity to feed, water and rest after gathering. Food may then be withheld for up to 24 hours before departure, and water for up to 12 hours before departure. If a delay in departure causes either or both of these times to be exceeded, then water with or without food needs to be provided as appropriate to satisfy these requirements.
No animals should be transported if physiologically weak (eg: late pregnancy, emaciation, severe lameness) or showing obvious disease symptoms or wounds liable to provoke further suffering. Shearing wounds should be sufficiently healed prior to transport.
Slightly injured or ill animals may be considered for transport as long as transport would not cause additional suffering (eg: mild lameness, healed wounds from veterinary procedures). If in doubt, veterinary advice should be sought from the Veterinary Service at the DoA.
When animals fall ill or are injured during transport, they should be separated from the others and receive first-aid treatment as soon as possible. If any form of medication is used, attention must be paid to withdrawal periods for meat consumption, and a record made of the animal’s identification, the quantity and name of the medication, and the date and time, on the Animal Movement Certificate. The receiver of the animals at the destination must be advised of this. If no other way exists of safeguarding the animal’s welfare it should be slaughtered in a way which does not cause it any unnecessary suffering.
(Based on EU 1/2005 Annex 1, Chapter 1)
3.2 Vehicle design:
The vehicle should be of sound construction, properly maintained, and suitable for the purpose intended.
The construction of the vehicle should be such that there are no sharp projections such as gate catches or panel edges that are likely to injure the animals.
The floor, including the ramp, should be either non-slip or supplied with suitable bedding to make it non-slip.
Raised loading bays should be used wherever possible, but where not, it should be ensured that ramp length is adequate to prevent it being excessively steep, and if necessary battens affixed to provide the animals with purchase.
The design should protect the animals from inclement weather and extreme temperatures.
The design should be as such to prevent the animals escaping or falling out and be able to withstand the stresses of movements.
Sufficient space should be provided inside the livestock compartment and on each level to provide adequate ventilation above the animals when in a naturally standing position. This should be alterable to suit the prevailing climatic conditions.
The livestock carrying department should be divided into pens of suitable size for the type of stock and should also be of suitable strength to withstand the weight of the animals on braking. Pen depth no more than 3 metres.
There should be means of inspecting the animals and access to them if necessary.
The design should be such that the vehicle can be readily cleaned and disinfected.
The vehicle should have a floor that minimises the leakage of faeces and urine during movement. (Based on both EU 1/2005 Annex 1, Chapter II and current Falklands Code of Practice)
Loading and unloading should be carried out as quietly and calmly as possible with the use of sticks and goads kept to a minimum.
The loaded animals should not be too bunched or too loose. They should have sufficient room to move, and sufficient headroom to be able to stand in a natural position with adequate through ventilation. (Refer to Appendix A for guidance to ‘Space Allowances’).
If there is any reason for tethering an animal, it should not be tethered by its legs, and the tether should be arranged in such a way as to eliminate the danger of strangulation, and allow quick release in the event of an emergency. At the same time it should be long enough to allow the animal to lie down.
The following groups of animals should be segregated or transported separately:
Animals of different species;
Animals of significantly different ages or sizes.
Sexually mature males from females.
Horned animals from non-horned animals.
Animals obviously hostile to each other.
Tethered animals from un-tethered animals.
The driver should drive at an appropriate speed and in such a manner that the risk of injury to the animals is minimised.
The stock should be inspected as frequently as necessary during a journey to ensure that the animals are comfortable.
Provision for feeding, watering and resting the animals should be planned in advance in accordance with expected journey time and with the requirements set out in Section 3.4 below.
(Based on both EU 1/2005 Annex 1, Chapter III and current Falklands Code of Practice)
3.4 Watering and feeding intervals, resting periods, journey times and vehicle requirements:
There are 2 classifications of journey for cattle and sheep: ‘Short journeys’ (journeys of up to 8 hours without rest) and ‘Long journeys’ (journeys of over 8 hours without rest).
In practice most journeys within the Falklands will fall under the ‘Short journey’ rules (see below). However, with the advent of a ro-ro ferry capable of carrying livestock trucks/trailers some journeys now undertaken will potentially be categorised as ‘Long journey’ i.e. over 8 hours.
Farmers using agricultural vehicles to carry their own livestock or livestock under their management wishing to undertake ‘Long journeys’ must satisfy all the requirements of 3.4.2 below.
For both ‘Short journeys’ and ‘Long journeys’, journey times are calculated from the loading of the first animal to the unloading of the last animal, and is additive for each leg of an otherwise uninterrupted journey. Because of this, if the next leg of the journey is likely to exceed the total permitted journey time, it must not be begun. A period of rest, watering with or without feeding as indicated below, must first occur before continuing the journey. Water and feed must be appropriate in quality and quantity to the size and species of the animals.
Where different vehicle loads of animals are mixed at a staging post part way through transportation, the remaining journey time available for that mixed group must be calculated from the load that has had the longest journey time up to that point.
Special rules apply to journey legs involving transportation by ship (see Section 3.5 below).
Vehicles must be inspected and licensed annually. This does not apply to agricultural vehicles operated by farmers to carry their own livestock or livestock farmed under their management.
There are no feeding, watering or resting requirements for animals travelling up to 8 hours provided they have had access to food up to 24 hours and water up to 12 hours before departure.
The animals must then be unloaded, fed, watered and rested for at least 24 hours before another journey of up to 8 hours can take place.
Where, part way through the journey, stock is kept in holding paddocks with adequate grazing and water, or is moved between holding paddocks and has the opportunity to snatch graze en route, the time taken shall be considered neutral time, and shall not reduce the remaining journey time available for onward transportation. In addition, if this period of holding and/or moving exceeds 24 hours, then a further full 8 hours journey time without food, water and rest may take place.
Long journeys can only be undertaken in specially designed and approved vehicles as detailed in Annex 1 to this code. The requirements are based on EU regulation EU 1/2005 Annex 1, Chapter VI, and exclude sections:
1.1, 2.3, 2.4, all of sections 3 and 4 as they are deemed excessive for the small scale haulage occurring within the Falkland Islands.
Vehicles must be inspected and licensed annually.
There are no feeding, watering or resting requirements for animals travelling up to 14 hours provided they have had access to food up to 24 hours and water up to 12 hours before departure.
The animals must then be watered and rested for 1 hour on or off the vehicle. Feeding is optional.
After this rest period the animals may be transported for a further 14 hours.
After this second period of 14 hours, the animals must be unloaded, fed, watered and rested for at least 24 hours before any further transportation can take place.
(Based on EU 1/2005 Annex 1, Chapter V and EU 1/2005 Annex 1, Chapter VI)
3.5 Additional provisions for sea transportation:
Ro-ros and similar vessels:
Where animals are not unloaded, as on a ro-ro or with livestock containers, the time spent on board the vessel counts towards the total journey time as per normal. The voyage should not be embarked upon without the prescribed period of rest if it is known that the total allowable journey time will be exceeded.
If through unforeseen circumstances total allowable journey time is exceeded at sea, then the animals must be unloaded, fed, watered and rested for 24 hours at or near the port of arrival.
In addition, vehicles and vessels must have adequate securing points to prevent excessive movement of the vehicle in bad weather.
Vessels where the livestock are unloaded:
Where food and water are not provided, then the time spent on board the vessel counts towards the total journey time as per normal. 3.5.1 (a) and 3.5.1 (b) apply.
Where food and water are provided, and in a manner so that all the animals have access, then the time spent on board the vessel is considered to be neutral time, and does not count towards the total journey time. In other words, what remains of the total allowable journey time at the port of embarkation is left unchanged at the port of disembarkation and can be used for further road transportation. The exception to this is 3.5.2 (c) below. Neutral time runs from when the last animal has been unloaded from a vehicle at the port of embarkation to when the first animal is loaded onto a vehicle at the port of disembarkation.
Where food and water is provided and the animals are on board for at least the stipulated period of feeding, watering and resting (24 hours for ‘short journey’ rules), then the full total allowable journey time (8 hours for ‘short journey’ rules) is available for further road transportation at the port of disembarkation.
All vessels must provide the animals with adequate protection from seawater in rough weather.
(Based on EU 1/2005 Annex 1, Chapter II, Section 3, and Annex 1, Chapter IV, Section 1, and current DEFRA guidance for interpretation of WATO 1997 (confirmed as unaltered by EU 1/2005))
3.6 On arrival:
A sufficient quantity of food should be provided for an animal on arrival at the lairage and at least twice daily thereafter, except that no animal need be fed within 12 hours of the time of which it is slaughtered.
Any animal which is held in a lairage must have drinking water available at all times.
(Based on 93/119/EC and UK Welfare of Animals Regs (Slaughter or Killing) 1995 (MHS Op Manual Vol ii, sect 9, page 18))
The Animal Transport Certificate and the Waybill (stock movement certificate) are amalgamated into 1 document, the Animal Movement Certificate, and the appropriate copies are to be carried with the animals.
All vehicles involved in the commercial transportation of animals should have a Certificate of Inspection and a Licence for ‘Short journeys’ or ‘Long journeys’ issued annually by the Veterinary Service at the Department of Agriculture. Farmers using agricultural vehicles for the transportation of their own animals or animals under their management only require a Certificate of Inspection and a Licence for ‘Long journeys’.
All drivers and animal attendants involved in the commercial transportation of animals are required to obtain a Certificate of Competence from the Veterinary Service at the Department of Agriculture. This will be issued after successfully attending an instruction course run by the DoA. Farmers using agricultural vehicles for the transportation of their own animals or animals under their management only require a Certificate of Competence for ‘Long journeys’.
All drivers and animal attendants involved in the commercial transportation of animals are required to keep a log book detailing the date, time and place of loading and departure, time and place of arrival and unloading and number and species of animal of each journey.
(This is partly a modification of EU 1/2005 Chapter 1, Article 1. It has been adjusted to make it acceptable and practical for the Falklands).
4. Specific requirements for species other than sheep and cattle:
Specific requirements for species other than sheep or cattle can be obtained on consultation with the Veterinary Service at the Department of Agriculture. Section 2, the ‘General conditions for all animals in transport’, must be complied with.
Guideline floor space allowances for animals:
Approximate weight (in kg)
Area in m2/animal
0,30 to 0,40
Medium sized calves
0,40 to 0,70
0,70 to 0,95
Medium sized cattle
0,95 to 1,30
1,30 to 1,60
Very heavy cattle
Weight in kg
Area in m2/animal
Shorn sheep and lambs of 26 kg and over
0,20 to 0,30
0,30 to 0,40
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